Astrometría e Historia de la Astronomía

José Gómez Castaño 

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    Mi otro blog

    Blogalia

    El Observatorio Astronómico de Estambul en 1577

    Los occidentales no nos hemos quitado de encima todavía la sensación del ser el centro del universo del conocimiento. Aunque nos atrae lo "exótico" de otras culturas, todavía no consideramos en su justa medida las aportaciones,
    que durante siglos, han realizado al desarrollo, en este caso, de la Astronomía.

    Un caso que me llama mucho la atención es la del Observatorio Astronómico finalizado en 1577 en Estambul por Taqi al-din al Rasid. El observatorio se erigió sobre la Torre Galata, en la ciudad de Tophane, y construida en 1216 por los Genoveses como lugar de ubicación de un antiguo faro.


    Taqui al-din era el primer astrónomo del Imperio Otomano cuando llegó al sultanato Murad III en 1574. Su idea era la de construir un observatorio a la manera de el de Uraniborg de Tycho Brahe. Taqui al-din quería actualizar las viejas tablas de posiciones estelares, el movimiento de los planetas, la
    luna y el sol.


    El observatorio estaba compuesto por dos estructuras. La más grande albergaba la biblioteca y las estancias para los astrónomos. En la segunda se situaban los instrumentos de observación, muchos de ellos construidos por el propio Taqui al-din, que además de astrónomo era un gran
    ingeniero.


    Lo más importante del observatorio, sin duda, eran sus instrumentos. Estos consistían en:


    Una Esfera Armilar (that al halak) con 6 anillos de 4 metros de radio, para medir la latitud y longitud de los objetos.

    Un Cuadrante Mural (Libna) para determinar las declinaciones de las estrellas y el sol.

    Un Semicírculo Azimutal (dhat al-semt wa'l irtifa) con el que se determinaba las altitudes y zimuts de las estrellas.

    Una Regla Paraláctica o Triquetum con el que se medía el paralaje de la luna.

    Un Cuadrante de Madera. Con él se medían las altitudes de las estrellas y sus distancias zenitales.

    Una Dioptra (dhat al-thuqbatayn)para medir los semidiámetros de los astros.

    Un Sextante (mushabbaha bi'l manatiq) con el que medir las distancias angulares entre estrellas.


    Las dimensiones y calidad de estos instrumentos eran comparables a los utilizados en el observatorio de Tycho, y sin duda, si su existencia no se hubiera visto truncada al poco tiempo de su construcción, hubiera sido la fuente de trabajos importantes en la determinación de posiciones estelares y planetarias.


    El Observatorio, a pesar de la importancia de sus instrumentos y trabajos, fué derruido poco después, en 1580. Taqi al-din al Rasid falló en su predicción de una victoria de los Otomanos sobre los Persas, basándose en la aparición de un cometa. Por este motivo, el sultán Murad III ordenó la destrucción.


    Desde aquí mi deseo de conocer más de esas tierras.

    2006-09-16 22:58 | Categoría: | 57 Comentarios | Enlace



    Referencias (TrackBacks)

    URL de trackback de esta historia http://meridies.blogalia.com//trackbacks/42976

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    De: Mizar Fecha: 2006-09-19 14:14

    Donde antes se observaban los astros ahora unas chicas con poca ropa bailan la danza del vientre.

    Visto en perspectiva el cambio podría haber sido peor ;-)

    Gracias por el artículo, Pepe.



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