Astrometría e Historia de la Astronomía

José Gómez Castaño 

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    Ocultaciones Estelares, Longitud y Euler

    Leonard Euler fué nombrado Director de la Sección de Geografía de la Acaemia de San Petersburgo en 1735. Quizá sea una sus facetas menos conocida. Su contribución más importante en este campo es la publicación de un Atlas de Rusia en 1745, con un total de 20 mapas del Imperio Ruso de la época. Como muchos de los grandes científicos de la época, Euler tuvo ante sí uno de los que creo que es de los grandes retos de la historia de la ciencia. La determinación de la Longitud Geográfica de un lugar.


    Mientras buscaba material para la reducción de observaciones antiguas, me he topado con un trabajo de Euler en este sentido. Se trata de "Methode de Determiner la Longitude des Lieux par L'Observation D'Occultations des Étoiles fixes par la Lune". Fué publicado 4 años después
    de la aparición del Atlas de Rusia, en Memoires de L'Academie des Sciences de Berlin, 3, 1749, pp. 178 y 179.


    En este breve artículo, Euler trata el problema de determinar la diferencia de longitud geográfica entre dos lugares en los que se observa la misma Ocultación estelar por la luna. La determinación de la longitud geográfica a partir de observaciones astronómicas ya había sido propuesta muchos años atrás. Incluso Galileo propuso la observación de los eclipses de los satélites de galileanos para determinar la longitud en el mar, a bordo de navíos.


    Una ocultación estelar por la luna se produce cuando la luna, en su movimiento orbital alrededor de la tierra, va tapando las estrellas a su paso. Para un observador situado sobre la superficie terrestre, la estrella desaparece tras el limbo lunar, para reaparecer poco después. Hace tiempo hice un manual de introducción a este tipo de observaciones


    El principio expuesto por Euler es el siguiente. Una ocultación es observada desde París, y la misma se observar desde otro lugar. Cada observador la observaría a una hora distinta. Para esa diferencia de tiempo, la luna habría recorrido un camino que determina a partir de las Tablas Lunares de la época. Siendo:


    Tp = El instante observado para París

    Tl = El instante observado para el lugar

    A1 = La ascensión recta de la luna para la observación de París

    A2 = La ascensión recta de la luna para la observación desde el lugar

    DA = El movimiento horario en Ascensión Recta

    L = Longitud del lugar

    Se obtiene que


    L = Tl - Tp + (A2 - A1) / DA


    Así la longitud del lugar de observación es la diferencia entre los instantes obtenidos por los dos observadores.


    Es un trabajo breve, pero de una gran importancia, que permite medir la posición de un lugar de forma precisa. Realmente, este método se ha utilizado ampliamente en la determinación de posiciones. Tanto los astrónomos
    en los observatorios como los geógrafos en sus viajes de exploración, utilizaron las observaciones astronómicas para determinaciones geográficas.


    Se calculaba el insntante de una ocultación para un lugar de referencia, normalmente algún meridiano importante, como el de Cádiz, el de París o el de Greenwich, y se publicaba en unas efemérides. Después de observaba el fenómeno y el instante se comparaba con el previsto. La diferencia proporcionaba la longitud geográfica. Además de ocultaciones, se utilizaban otros fenómenos, como eclipses de sol y de luna, y fenómenos de los satélites de Júpiter.


    Euler también utilizó este tipo de observaciones para determinar el lugar geocéntrico de la luna, en un trabajo titulado Methode de Trouver le vray lieu geocentrique de la lune par l'observation de l'ocultation d'une eotile fixe. Pero eso lo comentaré en otro momento.

    2006-09-23 16:52 | Categoría: | 79 Comentarios | Enlace



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