Astrometría e Historia de la Astronomía

José Gómez Castaño 

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    Cáculo de Cráteres de Impacto de Meteoroides II ...

    Gracias a Francisco Ocaña, he llegado hasta dos fuentes interesantes para el cálculo de este tipo de fenómenos: Asteroid Impact Crater de Stephen R. Schmitt y Earth Impact Effects Program de H. Jay Melosh y Gareth Collins.


    El primero es una pequeña utilidad JavaScript escrita a partir de un artículo aparecido en Sky & Telescope en Noviembre del 96 CRATER.BAS, si, para los "nuevos" en esto de la programación está escrito en el famoso BASIC. El listado en BASIC se puede todavía ejecutar si se tiene instalado el QBASIC.


    Después de comparar los resultados, el más completo de ellos es el Earth Impact Effects Program. Los resultados corresponden a los algoritmos publicados en Earth impact effects program: A web-based computer program for calculating the regional enviromental consequences of a meteoroid impact on Earth. (Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40, Nr. 6, 817-840, 2005), en un trabajo realizado por miembros de la Universidad de Tucson y del Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra del Colegio Imperial de Londres. El más didáctico o mejor dicho, el más visual, es sin duda el Flash de Down 2 Earth. Ya que no hay información sobre cómo realiza los cálculos, he decompilando el código swf y he encontrado que las expresiones que utiliza para los cálculos de energía y características del fireball, son las mismas que en el trabajo anterior. Sin embargo, hay diferencia en los resultados que se obtienten a la hora de evaluar las características de los cráteres.


    En la siguiente tabla he reunido los resultados de los tres programas para un meteoroide de 1500 m de diámetro, con una densidad de 1.5 Kg/m3, que impacta sobre la superficie terrestre con una densidad de 2.5 Kg/m3, a una velocidad de 50 Km/s y con un ángulo de inclinación de 45º.


     Down 2 EarthAsteroid Impact CraterEarth Impact Effects
    Energía del impacto3.31 * 10^21 Joules3.31 * 10^21 Joules3.31 * 10^21 Joules
        
    Profundidad del cráter633 m3743 m799 m
    Anchura del cráter12565 m14972 m27100 m
    Anchura del material ejectado0.06 m .03 m
        
    Altura de rotura del fireball89.746  
    Magnitud del terremoto a 100 km8 8.5
        


    Sin duda, para jugar un poco con los resultados y comprobar los efectos de un impacto lo más real posible, hay que decidirse por el Earth Impact Efects. Además de los datos básicos del cráter, se obtienen resultados sobre efectos atmosféricos, puntos de rotura del bólido que se forma, magnitud de los terremotos generados a una distancia dada. Lo que me ha llamado la atención son las ecuaciones para el cálculo de las consecuencias medioambientales y sísmicas a diferentes distancias


    A la hora de utilizarlo, hay que tener en cuenta las limitaciones que impone el algoritmo para diversas variables, por lo que el muy recomendable leer la documentación anexa al programa. A partir del artículo publicado en Meteoritics, es posible escribir un programa que permita "jugar" con las variables implicadas en el impacto. Estas son basicamente el diámetro del meteoróide y su velocidad, las densidades de los materiales que impactan, y el ángulo de impacto.

    Prometo un programa open source basado en estos algoritmos, lo que era la idea inicial.

    2008-06-22 20:07 | Categoría: | 41 Comentarios | Enlace



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